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Автор Тема: Европа и САД за историјата на Македониjа  (Прочитано 217734 пати)

Kukush

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« Одговори #30 на: Јуни 21, 2010, 08:34:22 »

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veritas

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« Одговори #31 на: Јули 02, 2010, 09:00:06 »

Ancient Macedonian language

Ancient Macedonian was the language of the ancient Macedonians. It was spoken in Macedonia during the 1st millennium BC and it belongs to the Indo-European group of languages, but its position and classification among this group is still not fully clarified. It is believed to have gradually fallen out of use, along with possibly other spoken Greek dialects, during the 4th century BC by when the standard Koine Greek was mainly used.[1]

Knowledge of the language is very limited, there being only a few fragmentary surviving attestations, mainly in glosses and proper names.[2] The volume of the surviving public and private inscriptions indicate that there was no written language in ancient Macedonia but Greek.[3]

A body of words has been assembled from ancient sources, mainly from coin inscriptions, and from the 5th century lexicon of Hesychius of Alexandria, amounting to about 150 words and 200 proper names, though the number of considered words sometimes differs from scholar to scholar. Most of them are similar to standard Greek, while some have been interpreted as pointing to a separate lineage from Indo-European.

Due to the fragmentary attestation various interpretations are possible.[4] The discussion is closely related to the reconstruction of the Proto-Greek language. The suggested historical interpretations of Macedonian include:[5]

    * An Indo-European language which is a close cousin to Greek and also related to Thracian and Phrygian languages, suggested by A. Meillet (1913) and I. I. Russu (1938),[6] or part of a Sprachbund encompassing Thracian, Illyrian and Greek (Kretschmer 1896, E. Schwyzer 1959).
    * An "Illyrian" dialect mixed with Greek, suggested by K. O. Müller (1825) and by G. Bonfante (1987).
    * Various explicitly "Greek" scenarios:
          o A Greek dialect, part of the North-Western (Locrian, Aetolian, Phocidian, Epirote) variants of Doric Greek, suggested by N.G.L. Hammond (1989) and O. Masson (1996).[7][8]
          o A northern Greek dialect, related to Aeolic Greek and Thessalian, suggested among others by A.Fick (1874) and O.Hoffmann (1906).[7][9]
          o A Greek dialect with a non-Indo-European substratal influence, suggested by M. Sakellariou (1983).
    * A Hellenic language suggested by Brian Joseph [4] and other modern linguists [10] who consider that the Macedonian tongue was a sibling language to all the Ancient Greek dialects, perhaps not on par as other Greek dialects. If this view is correct, then Macedonian and Greek would be the two subbranches of a group within Indo-European, forming a Greco-Macedonian supergroup, "which could more properly be called Hellenic".[4] This terminology may lead to misunderstandings, since the "Hellenic branch of Indo-European" is also used synonymously with the Greek branch (which contains all ancient and modern Greek dialects) in a narrower sense.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Macedonian_language
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veritas

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« Одговори #32 на: Јули 08, 2010, 10:01:38 »


American Chronicle
08 Юли 2010 г.

The most known Pan–Hellenic Symbols of the Macedonian Kingdom

January 16, 2009

Australian Macedonian Advisory Council


Greek Sun/Star or Vergina Sun/Star

There are many other symbols which use the rayed star (the ancient Greek symbol) across the centuries. The ancient Greek stars can contain 3-rays up to 24-rays, and all rays have many shapes, according to their inner meaning found in archaeological monuments. Many ancient archaeological findings exist today, such as ancient Greek coins, texts, icons, emblems, tituli, ostraca, fragments, epigrammata, papyrorum, tablettes, recensios, sculpures, vases, monuments etc. which make use of the ancient Greek rayed star symbol.


http://www.americanchronicle.com/articles/view/88044
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Maketo

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« Одговори #33 на: Јули 12, 2010, 11:55:42 »

В American Chronicle присъства всяка една гледна точка, само не и българската. Затова всяко едно свидетелство от USA произход е ценно за нас. Като това:

62 testimonies about the Bulgarian population in Macedonia at the end of XІX s. and the begining of XX s.

http://macedonia-history.blogspot.com/2010/01/62-testimonies-about-bulgarian.html

veritas

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« Одговори #34 на: Јули 16, 2010, 11:13:05 »

Още за гените на македонците.

Genetics
Further information: Genetic history of Europe
 
Haplogroup R1a Distribution
Global Haplogroup R1a1 DistributionThe modern Slavic peoples come from a wide variety of genetic backgrounds. The frequency of Haplogroup R1a [18] ranges from 63.39% by the Sorbs, 56.4% in Poland , 54% in Ukraine, 47% in Russia and 39% in Belarus, to 15.2% in Republic of Macedonia, 14.7% in Bulgaria and 12.1% in Herzegovina.[19] Haplogroup R1a may be connected to the spread of Proto-Indo-Europeans (see Kurgan hypothesis for more information).

A new study[9] studied several Slavic populations with the aim of localizing the Proto-Slavic homeland. The significant findings of this study are that:

Two genetically distant groups of Slavic populations were revealed: One encompassing all Western-Slavic, Eastern-Slavic, and two Southern-Slavic populations (north-western Croats, Slovenes), and one encompassing all remaining Southern Slavs. According to the authors most Slavic populations have similar Y chromosome pools — R1a, and this similarity can be traced to an origin in the middle Dnieper basin of Ukraine during the Late Glacial Maximum 15 kya.[20]
However, some southern Slavic populations such as Macedonians and Bulgarians are clearly separated from the tight DNA cluster of the rest of the Slavic populations. According to the authors this phenomenon is explained by "...contribution to the Y chromosomes of peoples who settled in the Balkan region before the Slavic expansion to the genetic heritage of Southern Slavs..."[20]
Pomors are distinguished by the presence of Y Haplogroup N in their genome. Postulated to originate from South-East Asia, it is found at high rates in Uralic peoples. Its presence in Pomors (called "Northern Russians" in the report)[21] attests to the non-Slavic tribes (mixing with Finnic tribes of northern Eurasia).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavs#Genetics
« Последно менување: Јануари 30, 2012, 10:23:03 veritas »
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veritas

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veritas

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« Одговори #36 на: Јули 21, 2010, 08:44:30 »


Bulgaria (theme)

The Theme of Bulgaria was a province of the Byzantine Empire established by Emperor Basil II after the victory over Samuel of Bulgaria (997-1014 AD) and the fall of the First Bulgarian Empire in 1018. It was based on the wider regions of Skopje and Ohrid[1] (modern Republic of Macedonia and south Serbia). Its capital was Skopje and it was governed by a strategos. Two main rebellions took place in the region, the Uprising of Peter Delyan (1040-1041) and the Uprising of Georgi Voiteh (1072). After 150 years the Bulgarian Empire was briefly restored, with the Rebellion of the brothers Peter and Asen in 1185 AD.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgaria_(theme)

http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&tbo=1&tbs=bks:1,bkv:p&q=theme+Bulgaria+Byzantine+Basil+II&btnG=Search&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai=
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veritas

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« Одговори #37 на: Јули 23, 2010, 09:30:14 »

Macedonians (ethnic group)

The Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts accepts that as a whole the modern Macedonian genotype developed as a result of the absorption by the advancing Slavs of the local peoples living in the region of Macedonia prior to their coming. This position is backed by the findings of most ethnographers such as Vasil Kanchov,[38] Gustav Weigand,[39] and the anthropologist Carleton S. Coon, which state that the Slavs in 6th century actively assimilated other tribal peoples by absorbing part of the indigenous populations of the area, including Greeks, Thracians and Illyrians.[40][41] By absorbing parts of the peoples living there the Slavs also absorbed their culture, and in that amalgamation a people was gradually formed with predominantly Slavic ethnic elements, speaking a Slavonic language and with a Slavic-Byzantine culture. Furthermore, the genetic studies support the theories that Macedonians genetic heritage is derived from a mixture of ancient Balkan peoples[42] as well as the relatively newly arrived Slavs with deep European roots.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macedonians_(ethnic_group)
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veritas

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« Одговори #38 на: Јули 26, 2010, 11:49:31 »

Писмо на меѓународна група од 200 академици до Барак Обама против Псевдомакедонизмот на БЈРМ

http://vardaraxios.wordpress.com/2009/05/21/pismo-na-svetski-akademici-do-barak-obama-protiv-psevdomakedonizmot/

Letter to President Barack Obama

http://macedonia-evidence.org/obama-letter.html

http://macedonia-evidence.org/documentation.html

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veritas

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veritas

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« Одговори #40 на: Август 24, 2010, 09:18:07 »

KUBER

'Kuber' or 'Kuver' (Bulgarian: 'Кубер') was a Bulgar leader from the 7th century who belonged to the same clan as the Danubian Bulgarian khan Asparukh - they both were sons of khan Kubrat.
When Great Bulgaria collapsed under the attacks of the Khazars, Kuber lead one of the fractions of the Bulgar people out of their former settlements in present-day Ukraine. The Bulgars led by Kuber travelled first to Pannonia and settled in the region of Syrmia, which was part of the Avar Khaganate.
According to the Byzantine source "Miracles of Saint Demetrius of Thessaloniki" Kuber was nominated by the Avars to rule over Syrmia as Avar vassal, but he started a rebellion against Avars, and, together with his people, moved from Syrmia around 680 AD and settled in the Balkans, in the Pelagonian plain in western Macedonia. There is not enough information about Khan Kouber and his people following the settlement in the western Balkans but Asparukh's son, Tervel, in the beginning of the 8th century, is said to have cooperated with "his uncles" from Macedonia. The text of one of the inscriptions around Madara Rider after Professor Veselin Beshevliev [1] informs:
:inscription Ic
:''[...] of Bulgars [...] and came to Tervel. My uncles in Thessaloniki region didn't credit to the slit-nosed Emperor and returned to Kisinas [...] his one [...] through treaty the ruler Tervel gave to the Emperor [...] 5 thousand [...] the Emperor together with me won well.''
The prominent archaeologist from Republic of Macedonia Ivan Mikulchik revealed the presence not only of the Kuber group, but the whole Bulgar archaeological culture throughout Macedonia and eastern Albania [2]. He describes the traces of Bulgars in this region, which consist of typical fortresses, burials, various products of metallurgy and pottery (including treasure with supposed Bulgar origin or ownership), lead seals, minted from Kuber, amulets, etc.
By the early 9th century the lands that Kouber settled had been incorporated into the First Bulgarian Empire.

http://tripatlas.com/Kouber
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veritas

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« Одговори #41 на: Септември 07, 2010, 02:08:11 »

Whether he had established a state of sorts or not, nothing is mentioned of Kuber after the 680s, but Asparukh's son, Tervel, in the beginning of the 8th century, is said to have cooperated with "his uncles" from Macedonia. His people were probably absorbed into the Slavs living in the area, well before Khan Presian expanded his Bulgarian Empire into Macedonia in the early 800s.

http://www.reference.com/browse/Kuber

Трябва да се има предвид, че прабългарите в Централна Азия са се смесвали с много етнически групи, така че има и леки примеси на монголоиден тип.

Accordingly, the name Bulgar is derived from the Turkic verb ''bulģa'' "to mix, shake, stir" and its derivative ''bulgak'' "revolt, disorder".[7]

Bulgars were a high-statured Caucasoid people with slight Mongoloid features, and practiced artificial cranial deformation of the round type[10]. The same sort of anthropological type and burial rites are common in Central Asia, where the practice of artificial skull deformation was also common in the area Ancient Greeks called Bactria and locals call Bukhara, Bokhara or Balhara. It has been argued that the latter was the land of origin of the Bulgars.

http://tripatlas.com/Bulgars

The 'Caucasian race', sometimes the 'Caucasoid race',[1][2] is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "relating to a broad division of humankind covering peoples from Europe, the Middle East, and parts of Central Asia, North Africa and South Asia" or "white-skinned; of European origin" or "relating to the region of the Caucasus in SE Europe".[3] The concept's existence is based on the now disputed typological method of racial classification.[4][5]
In Europe, especially in Russia and nearby, ''Caucasian'' usually describes ''exclusively'' people who are from the Caucasus region or speak the Caucasian languages.

In 2003, United States National Library of Medicine stopped using the term Caucasian race in favor of the term "European".[13]

In 2003, the term "''Caucasoid race''" is a term used in physical anthropology to refer to people of a certain range of anthropometric measurements [14]. The 2007 Encyclopedia Britannica characterizes the Caucasoid race as having light skin color, biochemical similarities and a variability in hair and eye colors.[15] University of College Cork chair of anatomy and physiology, M. A. MacConaill,[16] describes Caucasoids as being "''native to Europe... [and having] light skin and eyes, narrow noses, and thin lips. Their hair is usually straight or wavy''".[17] Caucasoids are said to have the lowest degree of projection of the alveolar bones which contain the teeth, a notable size prominence of the cranium and forehead region, and a projection of the midfacial region.

http://tripatlas.com/Caucasoid

The Bulgars had scytho-cimmerian origins according to Dzhagfar Tarihi (History of Dzhagfar - a medieval history of the Bulgarians. Volga Bulgaria.) , Bulgarian revolutionary and many ancient and modern historians.

According to the history of Dzhagfar the Bulgars were skythians from Pre-Turkic Turan/Pamir who later mixed with Cimmerians. They traveled a lot and established different countries with towns made out of stone.

A Muslim medieval scientist, Ibn Fadlan, who traveled to Volga Bulgaria calls the Bulgars "Sakalibi" and mentions the differences between the Turkic people he met and the Bulgars. He says that the Turkic tribes live primitively and savagely, they eat mainly meat, unlike them the Bulgarians have towns, laws, greeted him with bread (this tradition is trill preserved in Both Danube and Volga Bulgaria) and grow different crops as well as breeding cattle
The names of towns, regions, peoples and mountains in the regions Bulgars inhabited also point to Imeon:
Shuman(Bactria-Pamir) = Shumen(Danube Bulgaria) = Shumanai(east side of the Caspian sea)
Ispara(Bactria) = Ispor(Bulgarian ruler)
Balgar(Bactria) = Bolgar(Volga Bulgaria) = Bulgar
Balkh(Bactria) = Balkhar(Balkaria-Caucas) = Bulkar-Balkh(Balkaria-Caucas)
Varnu(Bactria) = Varna(Bulgaria)
Madar(Bactria) = Madara(Dunabe Bulgaria)
Boil(Bactria) = Boil(Bulgarian title)
Balkhani (Mountains on the eastern side of the Caspian) = Balk (h)an(Mountain range on the Balkan Peninsula)
Suvar(Bactria) = Suvar(Voga Bulgaria) = Suvar/Sevar(Bulgarian Ruler)
Osh(Bactria) = Oshed(Volga Bulgaria)
etc.
The names of the Bulgarian rulers were also Indo-European in origin and some were identical with the names of sarmatian kings - Asparukh(Ispor), Kuber, Kubrat(Kurt), Suvar(Sevar), Gostun, Baian, Avitohol, Omurtag, Krum etc.
Their language was also Indo European - from the Indo -Iranian group.
Words such as Shar, Kushta, Kuche, Hubost, Zhena, Brat, Kaka, Kurpa, Chembas, Na, Nana, Khazna etc. have survived in the Bulgarian language to this day.
http://www.kroraina.com/b_lang/bl_oldwords.html (Words from archeological findings from Dunabe,Great and Volga Bulgaria and their analogues in Ramir,Persia,Caucas,Western Europe and Shumer)
http://www.kroraina.com/b_lang/bl_double.html (Features of the old Bulgar language, preserved in the modern Bulgarian language)
http://www.kroraina.com/b_lang/bl_phonet.html (A phonetic model of the language of the Asparukh and Kuber Bulgars)
The anthropological type of 60% of the modern Bulgarians is Mediterranean - Caucasian (as well as of the Volga Bulgarians, although there were quite a few uralids there) and there were quite a few Pamirids - the same racial types are the skulls found in ancient Bulgarian burials. The ancient Bulgarians also practiced artificial skull deformation which was typical for the Sarmatians.
The Bulgarian Gods,Myths,Temples and Culture have mostly Iranian and Finno-Ugric elements(Either the Bulgarians got some things from the Ugric peoples or it was the other way around).

http://tripatlas.com/Bulgars

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veritas

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« Одговори #42 на: Септември 07, 2010, 02:09:48 »

Българите както се посочва в горните източници имат и кимерийски произход.

The Bulgars had scytho-cimmerian origins according to Dzhagfar Tarihi (History of Dzhagfar - a medieval history of the Bulgarians. Volga Bulgaria.) , Bulgarian revolutionary and many ancient and modern historians.

http://tripatlas.com/Bulgars

Ето кои са кимерийците.

The CIMMERIANS A proto-Iranian group which held the steppes of the Ukraine and southern Russia for quite a long while. They are best known today for their large and treasure-heavy burial mounds, called Kurgans. They, or rather their name, have also found a place in modern fantasy literature; Robert E. Howard adopted the name as the home tribe of his fictional hero, Conan the Barbarian. In the 8th century BCE, they came under increasing pressure from the Scythians, and in response migrated around the Black Sea to lay waste to large portions of Thrace and Anatolia. They were eventually disrupted by Lydia, but pockets of their language and culture persisted until the 5th century BCE. They are poorly documented and, in fact, the selection of names below has been Hellenized to a considerable degree.

The BULGARS The origins of the Bulgarian people are obscure. They emerge at the end of the 5th century as one of many people which had been associated with the Huns. When Attila's empire fragmented at his death in 453, the component elements which he ruled, both Hunnic and non-Hunnic, all slipped free and began jostling one another, migrating across the Balkans and the Ukraine, by times controlling or being controlled by others. Within this confused welter of peoples, a sept or clan of what were the ancestors of the Bulgars, the Onogundar, established themselves beside the upper Volga. From that base, they absorbed a number of other tribes and groups, including remnants of the Huns (the Altyn Oba, the Kutrigur, and the Utrigur), among others. Falling first under Avar influence, and later to the Khazars, the early Bulgars migrated further up the Volga, and there sundered into five seperate hordes , each of which followed an independent destiny.

http://my.raex.com/~obsidian/siberia.html

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« Одговори #43 на: Септември 07, 2010, 02:11:07 »

Related ethnic groups
The ethnic Macedonians were considered Macedonian Bulgarians by the most ethnographers until the early 20th century and beyond with a big portion of them evidently self-identifying as such.[86][87] The Slavic-speakers of Greek Macedonia and most among the Torlaks in Serbia have also had a history of identifying as Bulgarians and many were members of the Bulgarian Exarchate, which included most of the territory regarded as Torlak. Greater part of these people were also considered Bulgarians by most of the ethnographers until the early 20th century and beyond.[88][89][90][91]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgarians

BULGARIAN AND 'MACEDONIAN' LANGUAGE

http://www.americanchronicle.com/articles/view/79516
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« Одговори #44 на: Септември 07, 2010, 02:12:29 »

Друга иранска група с която се свързва произхода на прабългарите.

The SARMATIANS A people originally of Iranian stock who migrated from Central Asia to the Ural Mountains between the 6th and 4th century BCE and eventually settled in most of southern European Russia and the eastern Balkans. Like the Scythians to whom they were closely related, the Sarmatians were highly developed in horsemanship and warfare. Their administrative capability and political astuteness contributed to their gaining widespread influence. By the 5th century BCE the Sarmatians held control of the land between the Urals and the Don River. In the 4th century they crossed the Don and conquered the Scythians, replacing them as rulers of almost all of southern Russia by the 2nd century. Sarmatia perished when hordes of Huns migrated after AD 370 into southern Russia. Those surviving became assimilated or escaped to the West to fight the Huns and the last of the Goths. By the 6th century their descendants had disappeared from the historical record. The Sarmatians never formed a single unified polity; rather they were divided into numerous tribes, the most important of which were:

http://my.raex.com/~obsidian/siberia.html#Sarmatia

Iranian peoples first appear in Assyrian records in the 9th century BC. They remain dominant throughout Classical Antiquity in Scythia and Persia (Eastern Europe, Central and Western Asia). They are divided in a "Western" and "Eastern" branch from an early period, roughly corresponding to the territories of Persia and Scythia, respectively.

During Late Antiquity, the Iranian populations of Scythia are marginalized by the Turkic migrations. The Scythian language was mostly extinct by the 10th century, with the exception of Ossetic spoken in the northern Caucasus. Persia was ruled by the Sassanid Empire throughout Late Antiquity, and fell to the Islamic conquest in the 7th century.

By the 1st millennium BC, Medes, Persians, Bactrians and Parthians populated the Iranian plateau, while others such as the Scythians, Sarmatians, Cimmerians and Alans populated the steppes north of the Black Sea. The Saka and Scythian tribes remained mainly in the south and spread as far west as the Balkans and as far east as Xinjiang.

The division of Proto-Iranian into an "Eastern" and a "Western" group is attested in the form of Avestan and Old Persian, the two oldest known Iranian languages.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Iranian_peoples

Below is a list of tribes considered by some [citation needed] to be among the people called Sarmatian, or to be in territory considered Sarmatian.

Basilici, BasternaeBessi, Biessi, Bosporani Bulgarians, Bodini, Borusci, Burgiones

http://www.statemaster.com/encyclopedia/Sarmatians
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