Бугарски Културен Клуб

Ве молиме пријавете (login) или зачленете се (register).

Пријавете се со корисничко име, лозинка и должина на сесија
Напредно пребарување  

Новости:

Автор Тема: Европа и САД за историјата на Македониjа  (Прочитано 142605 пати)

veritas

  • Moderator
  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Отсутен Отсутен
  • Пораки: 2724
    • Погледај го Профилот
Одг: Европа и САД за историята на Македония
« Одговори #16 на: Март 24, 2010, 07:10:22 »

број 21941 | вторник 23.3.2010
Нова Македония
Скопската котлина била населена уште од праисторијата

Најстарото население на Скопската котлина од почетокот на историското време било пајонско. Во периодот на својата најголема моќ Пајонија се протегала од Стримон (Струма) на исток до Пелагонија на запад, од морското крајбрежје на југ од изворите на Аксиј (Вардар) на север, што значи дека Скопската котлина во најстариот период територијално и припаѓала на Пајонија.

http://www.novamakedonija.com.mk/NewsDetal.asp?vest=3221015523&id=17&prilog=0&setIzdanie=21941


http://www.dnevnik.mk/default.asp?ItemID=A5D223A4DED2B944974818A0798FA026
« Последно менување: Декември 01, 2014, 11:41:39 veritas »
Сочувана

veritas

  • Moderator
  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Отсутен Отсутен
  • Пораки: 2724
    • Погледај го Профилот
Одг: Европа и САД за историята на Македония
« Одговори #17 на: Март 31, 2010, 06:18:34 »

Песни от Растко за Самуил

http://www.rastko.rs/rastko/delo/11389

Писма од краља Владимира.
Горко цвили сужањ Владимире
у тамници краља булгарскога,
горко цвили, данак проклинаше,
у који се на свит породио.

Цини јадан, да не чује нико,
ал то чује Косара дивојка,
липа ћерца краља булгарскога,
који бише рода словинскога.

Пита њега Косара дивојка:
„Што је теби, мој сужњу невољни?
Али ти је мајка омилила,
али ти је жао завичаја?

Али ти је гладак додијао
ал тамница, јадна кућа твоја,
ал на ногу негве до колина,
ал на руку тежке лисичине?

Ал си чуо, мој сужњу невољни,
да с' удаје вирна љуба твоја,
тер проклиње данке и године
и старицу јадну мајку твоју?“

Говори јој сужањ Владимире:
„Прођи ме се, Булгарко дивојко!
Није мени жао завичаја,
нити ми је омилила мајка.

Нит је мени гладак додијао,
ни тамница, јадна кућа моја,
ни на ногу негве до колина,
ни на руку тежке лисичине.

Ни с' удаје вирна љуба моја,
јер се до сад нисам оженио,
нити ћу се јадан оженити,
јер 'во ћу ти брзо погинути

у тамници краља булгарскога
Самуела, да га Бог убио!
На вири је мене приварио,
у тамницу тамну поставио.“

Још му вели Косара дивојка:
„Да реци ми, мој сужњу невољни,
одкуда си, од које ли земље,
од кога ли рода и племена.“

Говори јој дите Владимире:
„Ја сам сужањ од Херцеговине;
дворио сам краља словинскога
у Трибињу, граду бијелому.

Што ме питаш за род и за племе,
и то ћу ти повидити право:
ја сам, секо, рода госпоскога,
ал сам сужањ краља булгарскога.

У мене је благо небројено,
моја би ме изкупила мајка,
ал ме краљу не да на одкупе,
него иште русу главу моју.“

Тишила га Косара дивојка:
„Немој цвилит, мој сужњу невољни!
Ја сам ћерца краља булгарскога
Самуела, господара твога.

Расплитаћу жуте косе моје,
љубићу му скута и колина,
ноге ћу му сузам поливати,
живим ћу га Богом заклињати,

да те пусти из тамнице тамне
и пошаље старој мајци твојој,
нек се твоја обесели мајка,
кад угледа Владимира синка.“

Пак одшета билу двору свому
тер се сама собом разговара:
„Што сам годир видила јунака
словинскога рода и племена,

ја не види липшега јунака,
ни липшега, ни присталијега,
нит га може породити мајка,
од младога сужња Владимира.“

Пак улизе у дворе бијеле,
љуби баби скута и колина,
ноге му је сузам обливала,
овако је баби говорила:

“Даруј мени сужња Владимира
за мојега вирна заручника,
а тако ти свитле круне твоје
и тако ти синка Радомира!

Чини ми се, мој мили бабајко,
да ће бити рода госпоскога:
дворио је краља словинскога,
липо збори, понизно говори.

Опрости га из тамнице, бабо,
а тако ти шарца коња твога
и тако ти бритке ћорде твоје,
јер је липо момче Херцеговче!“

На то се је краљу насмијао,
Косари је тихо говорио:
„Није оно момче Херцеговче,
већ је оно краљу Владимире.

Ја не могу друго учинити,
ваља ми га теби даровати,
сва је твоја слика и прилика,
слави њега Крбава и Лика.“

Кад разуми Косара дивојка,
да ће бити краљица словинска,
од драгости сузе проливаше,
своме баби руке целиваше.

Од тамнице кључе узимала,
тамници је врата отворала;
Владимира сужња дозиваше,
тер овако њему говораше:

“Устани се, краљу Владимире,
тер отари горке сузе твоје,
ево тебе заручница зове,
липа ћерца краља булгарскога!“

Кад је сужањ ричи разумио,
низ образ је сузам оборио,
благосивље Косару дивојку
веће него своју милу мајку.

Пак изађе из тамнице тамне
и отиђе г двору дивојчину.
Липо га је тасте дочекао,
за здравље се ш њиме упитао.

Зове к себи булгарске терзије,
да му кроје са златом аљине;
облачи га у скерлет и злато,
сину сужањ кано сунце жарко.

Племенит је собет учинио,
господу је на собет сазвао,
винча њега с Косаром дивојком,
поврати му круну и краљество.

Ту весеље велико бијаше,
не може се, побре, рећи више:
у двору су бубњи и свирале,
а прид двором дивно коло игра.

У колу су Булгарке дивојке,
коло води сека Косарина,
липе она писме изводила,
сваку писму секи припивала.

Да је кому погледати било
Самуела, краља булгарскога,
како свога зета целиваше,
целиваше и благосливљаше:

“Оди з Богом, драго дите моје,
на путу ти добра срића била!
Пуно сам ти, синко, сагришио
и старицу мајку разцвилио

држећи те у тамници тамној,
морећи те и жеђом и гладом.
Узми, синко, заручницу твоју,
поведи је г билу двору твому.

Поздрави ми словинску господу
и старицу милу мајку твоју,
којуно сам врло увридио,
бреззакоње свако учинио.“

Свим делијам писма на поштење,
Бог нам дао здравље и весеље!
Сочувана

veritas

  • Moderator
  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Отсутен Отсутен
  • Пораки: 2724
    • Погледај го Профилот
Одг: Европа и САД за историята на Македония
« Одговори #19 на: Април 09, 2010, 08:00:04 »

U starom veku, najveći deo teritorije Republike Makedonije je bila u sastavu kraljevine Pajonije, koju su naseljavali Pajonci, narod tračkog porekla, kao i u sastavu Ilirije i Dardanije, koji su naseljavala ilirska plemena. Sedište ove države je bilo prvo u Vilazori (današnji Veles), a kasnije u Stobiju.

Najjužniji pojas današnje Makedonije zauzimala je antička Makedonija. Antički Makedonci su bili stari balkanski narod, koji je govorio jedan nedovoljno poznat jezik.

http://wapedia.mobi/sh/Republika_Makedonija
Сочувана

veritas

  • Moderator
  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Отсутен Отсутен
  • Пораки: 2724
    • Погледај го Профилот
Одг: Европа и САД за историята на Македония
« Одговори #20 на: Април 29, 2010, 05:48:52 »

Južni Sloveni su se naselili na teritoriju današnje Republike Makedonije u 6. veku. Sloveni su učestovali u nekoliko pohoda na Vizantiju, sami ili u savezu sa Avarima i Prabugarima. Oko 680. godine grupa Prabugara, koje je predvodio kan Kuber se naselila u Pelagoniji i pokrenula pohode u oblast Soluna.

http://sh.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republika_Makedonija



Сочувана

veritas

  • Moderator
  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Отсутен Отсутен
  • Пораки: 2724
    • Погледај го Профилот
Одг: Европа и САД за историята на Македония
« Одговори #21 на: Мај 09, 2010, 09:51:55 »

 Произход и историческо значение [редактиране]

За ранните години на Самуил не се знае много. Надписът от с. Герман, край Преспанското езеро и добавките на епископ Михаил Деволски към хрониките на Скилица сочат, че бащата на комитопулите е Никола, а майка им - Рипсимия.[3][4] Нейното име според някои изследователи говори за арменския ѝ произход.[5] Според изворите Никола е бил болярин и областен управител от най-високо ниво. В латинската версия на хрониките на Скилица е наречен comes, а синовете му - comites. Титлата комит е давана на управниците на комитати, на които България е разделена от средата на 9 век.[6] Предполага се, че комит Никола е управител на голямата област Средец.[7] Вероятно той се намира в близки родствени връзки с преславския царски двор - сред потомците му са разпространени имената на владетели от Симеоновия род.[8] Самуил кръщава един от синовете си, Гавраил Радомир, на неговия дядо - Гавраил, брат на Симеон, а племенникът на Самуил, Иван Владислав, кръщава един от своите синове на прадядо си - Пресиян.

Предполжението, срещащо се в по-стари изследвания, че Самуил е имал съгласно с тогавашния български обичай второ име Стефан, почива на исторически извор, чиято автеничност е оспорена.[9]

Никола вероятно умира преди 970 г.[10]

Две столетия по-късно управлението на комитопулите легитимира създаването на Втората българската държава. Мястото на Самуил в българската държавна традиция, като наследник на Симеон и Петър и предшественик на Асеневци, е засвидетелствано в кореспонденцията на папа Инокентий III с българския цар Калоян и с унгарския крал Емерих.[11][12] В писмо от 1203 г. Калоян съобщава, че е натоварил Търновския архиепископ Василий с мисия до папата, "съгласно обичая" на неговите

http://bg.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D0%B0%D0%BC%D1%83%D0%B8%D0%BB
Сочувана

veritas

  • Moderator
  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Отсутен Отсутен
  • Пораки: 2724
    • Погледај го Профилот
Одг: Европа и САД за историята на Македония
« Одговори #22 на: Мај 13, 2010, 03:29:54 »

Утрински весник, Број 3281 четврток, 13 мај 2010

Мислења

Александар, Макавеите и јазолот

Панде Колемишевски

Гордиевиот јазол може да се одврзе на различни начини: со трпение, со подотворање и минување низ него без тој да не' стегне или со пресекување

БИБЛИСКИ АЛУЗИИ

Ако се согласиме дека во многуте книги за Александар Македонски, покрај фактите, има претераности, измислици и неточности, да видиме што пишува во единствената книга на вистината, под што се подразбира Библијата. Ако евентуално не сте биле запознати, еве прилика да дознаете дека во Светото писмо, генијалниот војсководец си има свое место и име. Неговиот идентитет, живот и дело таму се опишани кратко, но мошне ефектно.

Имено, првата книга Макавејска (има три) во Стариот завет, почнува со него, а продолжува со неговите наследници. Таму дословно пишува: „Александар Македонски, синот на Филипа, излезе од земјата Хетејска и го победи Дарија, персискиот и индискиот цар, и се зацари место него во Елада. Тој водеше многу војни, презеде многу утврдени места и порази многу цареви. Дојде до краиштата на земјата и ограби многу народи, целата земја замолкна пред него, а тој се издигна и срцето негово се возгордеа. Тој собра силна војска и завладеа над многу краишта, народи и владетели, и тие му станаа негови поданици. Најпосле падна во постела и откако почувствува дека ќе умре, ги повика своите доверливи луѓе, кои заедно со него се беа воспитувале во младоста, додека уште беше жив им го раздели царството. И така, откако царуваше дванаесет години, Александар умре, а неговите великодостоинственици владееја секој во својата област. По неговата смрт, сите тие се зацарија, ставија круни на главите, а по нив (се зацарија) и нивните синови во текот на многу години и злото го умножија на земјата“. Така пишува во Библијата за човекот што создаде царство од Македонија до Индија, за чие дело, воени стратегии и заслуги за цивилизацијата, покрај признанијата, до денес рефлектираат и контроверзии што се движат меѓу вистините и легендите. Меѓу нив, за нас најжестоки се дебатите околу додавката на името (Македонски или Велики) и потеклото (македонско или грчко).

Она што помалку се знае или не се третира, а ги поврзува настаните од пред две илјади и триста години со денешните, се крие во завршната реченица од цитатот во Библијата за Александар Македонски. Формулацијата дека - нивните синови во тек на многу години го умножија злото на земјата - се однесува за подоцнежните династии произлезени од потомците на македонските генерали на војсководачот и за нивното владеење над Израел и со Евреите, особено за време на кралот Антиох Епифан, стотина години по смртта на Александар.

За да не го земе сега тоа некој жесток и недоучен антиквизист како повод за нова наша (владина или невладина) еуфорија дека Македонците го поразиле и владееле со земјата Израелот, треба да се нагласи дека во книгите макавејски наследниците не се прославени по добрина. Напротив, тие се означени како носители на гревот во земјата јудејска затоа што со Епифан започнал масовниот обид за елинизацијата на Евреите. Се одвивала насилна грчка пропаганда, се наметнувала грчката култура и начин на живеење. На луѓето им го забранувале славењето на домашните, а ги терале да се клањаат на грчките богови, им ги менувале традициите и верските обичаи, правеле се' нивниот мајчин арамејски јазик да им го заменат со грчкиот. Се' што правеле, го правеле не бирајќи средства: со сила, со убиства, со прогонства, со измами и особено со поткупи со сребреници, мерени во килограми, подвижни и неподвижни добра. Башка што им ги скевранавеле светилиштата и храмовите, ги ограбувале и жените им ги силувале. Не пишува дали им ги менувале и имињата на новородените, но го забранувале обрезувањето, световен чин за секој Евреин. Епилогот во книгите Макавејски е во еврејската победа над грцизмот извојувана низ востанија, борби и со бројни дадени човечки животи, но и во тоа, дека набргу, по ослободувањето од хелинистичкиот јарем, на Израел му бил наметнат друг - римскиот.

Надевајќи се дека македонската држава во својот национален занес по Александар Македонски, и покрај сите можности што ги има на располагање, нема да се реши да направи нов историски чекор, па да тргне во освојување кон Азија, да го најде Гордион и по стапките на својот обожаван јунак, да го пресече јазолот што го заврзаа Грците, да се вратам на Макавеите. Макавеј е име, презиме или прекар на еврејски јунак кој бил на чело на борбата против елинизацијата на неговата земја и народ. Крајно интересно, да не речам енигматично, е што до денес во Македонија, во Црквата и меѓу народот, во август се празнува празникот во спомен на седумте браќа макавејски кои умреле маченички во борбите против ширењето на гркоманството во Израел. Во некои делови од Македонија деновите се слават како тежок празник, а некаде не е познат. Во старо време, според тоа какви биле временските прилики, во тие денови се прогнозирало времето за цела година. Во Охрид, на пример, жените не переле, не ги бањале децата и три дена вода не фаќале, освен за пиење. Дали во тоа има античка симболика, дали има врска со Александар Македонски и наследниците, дали се непознати македонско-еврејски врски или, пак, се остатоци од грчката пропаганда за елинизација на Македонија, не ми е познато. Белки еден ден се' ќе излезе на видело.

http://www.utrinski.com.mk/?ItemID=00225FB62D0256488F65D1054B6D9778
Сочувана

veritas

  • Moderator
  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Отсутен Отсутен
  • Пораки: 2724
    • Погледај го Профилот
Одг: Европа и САД за историята на Македония
« Одговори #23 на: Мај 19, 2010, 08:15:23 »

Peonija
Iz Wikipedije, proste enciklopedije

Peonija je bila antična država, ki se je nahajala na vzhodnem delu današnje Makedonije. Večinsko prebivalstvo so bili Peonci. V času vladavine makedonskega carja Filipa II. Makedonskega je bila Peonija osvojena in postala del Makedonskega imperija.

Nedavna arheološka izkopavanja so odkrila najznačilnejše pajonsko mesto, imenovano Bilazora, v občini Sveti Nikole v republiki Makedoniji, kjer so najdena vhodna vrata in del stene akropole antičnega mesta Bilazora.

http://sl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peonija

Сочувана

veritas

  • Moderator
  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Отсутен Отсутен
  • Пораки: 2724
    • Погледај го Профилот
Одг: Европа и САД за историята на Македония
« Одговори #24 на: Јуни 10, 2010, 01:35:35 »

The American Chronicle

Macedonism in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and the dogma of the Macedonian genes.
TymphaiosApril 10, 2009Macedonism is a word used to refer to the doctrine of the Macedonian origin currently popular among many vocal political campaigners from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM). Several arguments are presented to support this idea. Among the pseudo-scientific ones is the claim that the modern inhabitants of FYROM have inherited the genes of the Macedonians. Studies of human genes and their distributions is a somewhat controversial area of genetic research, too often used by race supremacists to back up their racist beliefs.

Of course there have not been any studies of the genes of ancient Macedonians. The key argument in relation to Macedonism instead hinges on a paper titled "HLA genes in Macedonians and the sub-Saharan origin of the Greeks" (posted at http://bulgarsandgreeks.blogspot.com/2007/07/hla-genes-in-macedonians-and-sub.html) by Arnaiz-Villena and colleagues in 2001 (1) with three of the co-authors being apparently FYROM nationals. Moreover, the DNA samples were analysed by the Tissue Typing laboratory, Institute of Blood Transfusion, Skopje, "Republic of Macedonia". The samples were not analysed blindly, as the Greek samples and samples from other populations came from a chapter in an obscure book that was not peer-reviewed and is not easily accessible. Neither FYROMacedonians nor Greeks were randomly reshuffled to determine that any variability claimed was significant. The unscientific prejudice is already evident in their introduction:

"Ancient Macedonians were among the peoples that lived between northern Greece (Thessaly) and Thrace in the Balkans and were considered by the classical Greeks as "non-Greek barbarians" that could not participate in the Greek Olympic Games (2). Herodotus wrote that "Macedonians" were "Dorians" and were never admitted to the Greek community (3). They did not speak Greek but another language presently unknown and of which only proper names remain"

None of this has any relation to the data they are presenting, which are genetic. The political speech is, moreover, unworthy even as history or geography. Strabo, the ancient geographer who gave accurate descriptions of the geography of his time, clearly stated:

"Macedonia, of course, is a part of Greece".

Strabo, VII, Frg. 9 (Loeb, H.L. Jones).

Herodotus wrote indeed that Macedonians were Dorians, however, the conclusion that they were therefore not Greek is mystifying.

"Then after this he [Croesus] gave thought to inquire which people of the Hellenes he should esteem the most powerful and gain over to himself as friends. And inquiring he found that the Lacedemonians and the Athenians had the pre-eminence, the first of the Dorian and the other of the Ionian race. For these were the most eminent races in ancient time, the second being a Pelasgian and the first a Hellenic race"

Herodotus, Histories Book 1, paragraph 56 (5th C BC)

Herodotus states the Dorian race was a Hellenic race. This in any case is not disputed by any serious historian. Moreover, Herodotus indeed specifically says elsewhere that the Macedonians were a Greek race:

"And that these descendants of Perdiccas are Hellenes, as they themselves say, I happen to know myself, and not only so, but I will prove in the succeeding history that they are Hellenes."

Herodotus Histories Chapter 5, paragraph 22 (5th C BC)

Herodotus immediately embarks on the participation of Alexander, king of Macedonia, in the Olympic games, presumably the first argument that the Macedonians were Greeks and completely the opposite argument that the authors of this paper claim Herodotus was making.

"Moreover the Hellanodicai, who manage the games at Olympia, decided that they [ie. the Macedonians] were so [ie. Hellenes]: for when Alexander wished to contend in the games and had descended for this purpose into the arena, the Hellenes who were to run against him tried to exclude him, saying that the contest was not for barbarians to contend in but for Hellenes: since however Alexander proved that he was of Argos, he was judged to be a Hellene."

Herodotus Histories Chapter 5, paragraph 22 (5th C BC)

The statement that the Macedonians were considered by the Greeks as "non-Greek barbarians" is not referenced and it is not made in ancient sources. An allegation by Demosthenes that Philip was a barbarian was specific to Philip and indeed the same insult was made against Demosthenes by his political opponents. The language of the ancient Macedonians is known via their names and placenames such as the names of their cities ("proper names"), works of literature and philosophy, epigraphy, their religion and customs, etc and these are Greek, as Greek as those of the other Greeks, if not more so.

Even the most ignorant geneticist would have been alarmed by such clamorous political allegations appearing in the introduction of a paper with scientific pretenses specifically about Macedonian and Greek genes. But what follows is even more puzzling, indeed so much so that a subsequent paper relying on these data received so much criticism that it had to be retracted by the journal, an extremely rare case in science. Let us examine the genetic claims made in the first paper. The authors claim:

"1) Macedonians [of FYROM] belong to the "older" Mediterranean substratum, like Iberians (including Basques), North Africans, Italians, French, Cretans, Jews, Lebanese, Turks (Anatolians), Armenians and Iranians,

2) Macedonians [of FYROM] are not related with geographically close Greeks, who do not belong to the "older" Mediterranenan substratum,

3) Greeks are found to have a substantial relatedness to sub-Saharan (Ethiopian) people, which separate them from other Mediterranean groups. Both Greeks and Ethiopians share quasi-specific DRB1 alleles."

On the basis of a study on a single gene, the authors concluded that "the reason why Greeks did not show a close relatedness with all the other Mediterraneans analyzed was their genetic relationship with sub-Saharan ethnic groups now residing in Ethiopia, Sudan, and West Africa (Burkina Faso)." Ironically, a newer study (4) that looked at the five most important haplogroups finds FYROMacedonians most closely related to the Serbs and Bulgarians. One gene that is common in Africa, the E3b1 allele, was found at an incidence of 21.5% in the FYROMacedonian sample. It is found at an incidence of over 70% among Somalis (5). This irony fully shows the way science is conveniently twisted and turned into the service of Macedonism by the involved scientists and campaigners.

The so-called Arnaiz-Villena controversy continued with a subsequent paper in a different journal (6). This second paper dealt specifically with the relatedness of Palestinians and Israelis and was subsequently "deleted from the scientific literature". The editor-in-chief Nicole Suciu-Foca wrote in her Editorial: "As Editor-in-Chief, I did not read Dr. Antonio Arnaiz-Villena´s own paper in Human Immunology in depth until the issue was published. I regret deeply that the authors have confounded the elegant analysis of the historic basis of the people of the Mediterranean Basin with a political viewpoint representing only one side of a complex political and historical issue. While the authors have the right to their political opinion they have no special expertise in this area and their views have no place in a scientific journal. The Editors deplore the inappropriate use of a scientific journal for a political agenda and apologize to the readers. This paper has been deleted from the scientific literature."

Erica Klarreich's report on the controversy further quotes Sucio-Foca as saying that the reaction against the paper was so severe that "We would have had mass resignations and the journal would have been destroyed if this paper were allowed to remain." The controversy was further reported on in numerous newspapers including the Observer.

Shortly after this, three highly respected geneticists, Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Alberto Piazza and Neil Risch, published a critique of the scientific limitations of Arnaiz-Villena's methodology (7). They expressly said that their criticism has nothing to do with the politics involved:

"Our primary concern, however, is that the authors might be perceived to have been discriminated against for political, as opposed to legitimate scientific, reasons" and continued with the substance of their criticisms:

"Even a cursory look at the paper's diagrams and trees immediately indicates that the authors make some extraordinary claims. They used a single genetic marker, HLA DRB1, for their analysis to construct a genealogical tree and map of 28 populations from Europe, the Middle East, Africa and Japan. Using results from the analysis of a single marker, particularly one likely to have undergone selection, for the purpose of reconstructing genealogies is unreliable and unacceptable practice in population genetics. The limitations are made evident by the authors' extraordinary observations that Greeks are very similar to Ethiopians and east Africans but very distant from other south Europeans; and that the Japanese are nearly identical to west and south Africans. It is surprising that the authors were not puzzled by these anomalous results, which contradict history, geography, anthropology and all prior population-genetic studies of these groups. Surely the ordinary process of refereeing would have saved the field from this dispute."

The scientists conclude by saying that "We believe that the paper should have been refused for publication on the simple grounds that it lacked scientific merit."

No multiple-marker analysis has ever duplicated Arnaiz-Villena's results. In The History and Geography of Human Genes (Princeton, 1994), Cavalli-Sforza, Menozzi and Piazza grouped Greeks with other European and Mediterranean populations based on 120 loci. Ayub et al. (8) came to the same conclusion in 2003 using 182 loci.

Finally in 2004, a group of scientists working at the University of Skopje (9) refuted the evidence in the first Arnaiz-Villena paper. They studied the same HLA-DRB1 locus and indeed compared it also to the Bulgarian population and found that the FYROMacedonian forms and their incidence in the population are similar to those of the other Balkan peoples, including the Bulgarians. A Bulgarian study confirmed this (10). Both these studies appear to have been completely missed by the genetic Macedonists. The discredited Arnaiz-Villena paper continues to be cited all over the internet, mostly by white supremacists and Macedonian Slav nationalists who have political motivations to make arguments on racial purity by suitably interpreting the controversial paper. The white supremacists make the argument that the modern Greeks and other "white" people are becoming impure via some kind of genetic contamination by black Africans. The Macedonists continue regardless with their claims that the study proves that the ancient Macedonians are related to the modern FYROMacedonians and were unrelated to the ancient Greeks who had come from Africa.

Macedonia (Strumica, Macedonia): "they are Ethiopians - http://www.makedonika.org/processpaid.aspcontentid=ti.2001.pdf" May 17, 2008

Alpin Turk (Tubize, Belgium): "Greeks have indeed 6% Ethiopian Genes and 30% Arab genes; they're interesting ppl. Ancient Greeks are all dead, they were white men." May 18, 2008

VLADIMIR (UK): "Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country situated in the Horn of Africa. Ethiopia is bordered by Eritrea to the north, Sudan to the west, Kenya to the south, Somalia to the south-east and Djibouti to the north-east. The Hellenic part of ethiopia is a small country located under Macedonia. The Hellenic ethiopian province is dictated by the ethiopian government. GREECE ROOTS" May 20, 2008

HELL -ASS and BUL- GUSS (Wollongong, Australia): "

THEY WON'T REVEAL DNA OF THE ANCIENT MACEDONIAN SOLDIERS DISCOVERED RECENTLY.. OR NO DNA FROM THE MACEDONIAN TOMBS. WHY? WHY? WHY? SCARED? SCARED? AFRAID? AFRAID? OF THE TRUTH...." Sep 19, 2008

Eni Macedonia: " DNA GENES: 1) Macedonians belong to the "older" Mediterranean substratum, like Iberians (including Basques), North Africans, Italians, French, Cretans, Jews, Lebanese, Turks (Anatolians), Armenians and Iranians." Sep 22, 2008 (quoting from the Arnaiz-Villena paper).

Alexandra Aleksovska: "The Swiss company iGenea, the European subsidiary of the worlds largest Genealogical DNA company – FamilyTreeDNA, has taken this data and put together genetic profiles of ancient peoples based on specific genetic markers. One of these is a specific Ancient Macedonian genetic profile. The Macedonian profile is similar to the Ancient Greek profile – but different enough to be distinct. Genetically, they were a separate people. In my chromosomes, I carry the same DNA markers that the Ancient Macedonians had. From Alexandra Aleksovska´s " On ´On Ethnicity´ http://www.americanchronicle.com/articles/view/93915

These relatively recent posts clearly show the gulf of misunderstanding. The Macedonian dead were often cremated (their dead bodies were burned) two thousand years ago or more and there would be no way modern science could tell anything about their DNA. iGENEA has no data on ancient Macedonian genes either. They are a private company, not a research institute. Their business involves comparing the genes of modern FYROMacedonian individuals (among else) with the genetic profiles of modern peoples (including other FYROMacedonians) and sending off "ancestry" reports. In this context they are simply comparing how close a FYROMacedonian´s genetic markers come to the average profile of FYROMacedonians. If they look halfway in the direction of the Bulgarian profile, they would say something along the lines "you are half-FYROMacedonian, half-Bulgarian". That proves absolutely nothing about the alleged origin from the ancient Macedonians.

While white supremacism is somewhat faceless, the case of Macedonism has an identifiable following. A nationalistic dogma is being forged on a pseudoscientific "myth", indeed on a discredited scientific study. This myth continues to appeal to a group of people who must clearly have a difficulty in separating dogma from science. The basis for understanding and mutual coexistence must surely be education. Without education one may hope in miracles in the same way someone else puts faith in pseudoscience.

REFERENCES

1. Arnaiz-Villena A, Dimitroski K, Pacho A, Moscoso J, Gómez-Casado E, Silvera-Redondo C, Varela P, Blagoevska M, Zdravkovska V, Martínez-Laso J. (2001) HLA genes in Macedonians and the sub-Saharan origin of the Greeks. Tissue Antigens. 57:118-27

2. Villar F. Los indoeuropeos y los orígenes de Europa.Madrid: Gredos, 1996.

3. Herodotus. History.Madrid: Gredos, 1989.

4. Pericic et al (2005) High-Resolution Phylogenetic analysis of Southeastern Europe traces major episodes of paternal gene flow among Slavic populations. Molecular Biology and Evolution 22:1964

5. Sanchez JJ, Hallenberg C, Børsting C, Hernandez A, Morling N. (2005) High frequencies of Y chromosome lineages characterized by E3b1, DYS19-11, DYS392-12 in Somali males. European Journal of Human Genetics. 2005 Jul;13(7):856-66.

6. Arnaiz-Villena et al (2001) The origin of Palestinians and their genetic relatedness with other Mediterranean populations. Human Immunology 62:889-900.

7. Risch N, Piazza A, Cavalli-Sforza LL (2002) Dropped genetics paper lacked scientific merit. Nature 416:677.

8. Ayub et al (2003) Reconstruction of human evolutionary tree using polymorphic autosomal microsatellites. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 122:259-68.

9. Petlichkovski A et al (2004) High-resolution typing of HLA-DRB1 locus in the Macedonian population. Tissue Antigens 64:486 - 491

10. Ivanova M et al (2002) HLA polymorphism in Bulgarians defined by high-resolution typing methods in comparison with other populations. Tissue Antigens 60:496-504.

http://www.americanchronicle.com/articles/view/97926
Сочувана

veritas

  • Moderator
  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Отсутен Отсутен
  • Пораки: 2724
    • Погледај го Профилот
Одг: Европа и САД за историята на Македония
« Одговори #25 на: Јуни 10, 2010, 01:54:26 »

Mygdonia




Mygdonia (Greek: "Μυγδονία") was an ancient territory, part of Ancient Thrace, later conquered by Macedon, which comprised the plains around Therma (Thessalonica) together with the valleys of Klisali and Besikia, including the area of the Axios river mouth and extending as far east as Lake Bolbe. To the north it was joined by Crestonia. The Echeidorus, which flowed into the Thermaic Gulf near the marshes of the Axios, had its sources in Crestonia. The pass of Aulon or Arethusa was probably the boundary of Mygdonia towards Bisaltia. The maritime part of Mygdonia formed a district called Amphaxitis, a distinction which first occurs in Polybius, who divides all the great plain at the head of the Thermaic gulf into Amphaxitis and Bottaiea, and which is found three centuries later in Ptolemy. The latter introduces Amphaxitis twice under the subdivisions of Macedonia---in one instance placing the mouths of the Echidorus and Axios in Amphaxitis, and mentioning Thessalonica as the only town in the district, which agrees with Polybius and with Strabo. In another place Ptolemy includes Stageira and Arethusa in Amphaxitis, which, if correct, would indicate that a portion of Amphaxitis, very distant from the Axios, was separated from the remainder by a part of Mygdonia; but since this is improbable, the word is perhaps an error of the text.

The main cities of Mygdonia were Therma (Thessalonica), Sindus, Chalastra, Altus, Strepsa, Cissus, Mellisurgis (today, Mellisourgós), and Heracleustes. The town of Apollonia was visited by the apostle Paul. Besides these, the following obscure towns occur in Ptolemy: Chaetae, Moryllus, Antigoneia (which actually refers to Antigonia Psaphara in the Chalcidice[1]), Calindaea, Boerus, Physca, Trepilus, Carabia, Xylopolis, Assorus, Lete, Phileres, Dicaea, Aeneia and Arethusa .

The area has been inhabitied since the Mesolithic era (9000-7000 BC). Early inhabitants probably were the Pelasgians, followed by the Mygdones, who gave their name to the region. The Mygdones may have been a Brigian tribe. Paeonians and also Thracians (in particular, the Edonians) ruled and inhabited the region for a time, until it was annexed to Macedon. Today, most of Mygdonia is comprehended within the Thessaloniki prefecture [1], in Greece.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mygdonia



Сочувана

veritas

  • Moderator
  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Отсутен Отсутен
  • Пораки: 2724
    • Погледај го Профилот
Одг: Европа и САД за историята на Македония
« Одговори #26 на: Јуни 10, 2010, 02:24:47 »

Macedonia (ancient kingdom)



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Map_Peloponnesian_War_431_BC-fr.svg
Macedon during the Peloponnesian War around 431 BC.

Early history and legend
The lands around Aegae, the first Macedonian capital, were home to various peoples. Macedonia was called Emathia (from king Emathion) and the city of Aiges was called Edessa, the capital of fabled king Midas. According to legend, Caranus, accompanied by a multitude of Greeks came to the area in search for a new homeland [5] took Edessa and renamed it to Aegae. Subsequently, he expelled Midas and other kings off the lands and he formed his new kingdom. According to Herodot, it was Dorus, the son of Hellen who led his people to Histaeotis, whence they were driven off by the Cadmeians into Pindus, where they settled as Macedonians. Later, a branch would migrate further south to be called Dorians [6].

It seems that the first Macedonian state emerged in the 8th or early 7th century BC under the Argead Dynasty, who, according to legend, migrated to the region from the Greek city of Argos in Peloponnesus (thus the name Argead).[7] The Macedonian tribe ruled by the Argeads, was itself called Argead (which translates as "descended from Argos").

The kingdom was situated in the fertile alluvial plain, watered by the rivers Haliacmon and Axius, called Lower Macedonia, north of the mountain Olympus. Around the time of Alexander I of Macedon, the Argead Macedonians started to expand into Upper Macedonia, lands inhabited by independent Macedonian tribes like the Lyncestae and the Elmiotae and to the West, beyond Axius river, into Eordaia, Bottiaea, Mygdonia, and Almopia-, regions settled by, among others, many Thracian tribes.[8] Near the modern city of Veria, Perdiccas I (or, more likely, his son, Argaeus I) built his capital, Aigai (modern Vergina). After a brief period under Persian rule under Darius Hystaspes, the state regained its independence under King Alexander I (495–450 BC).

 
Macedon during the Peloponnesian War around 431 BC.In the long Peloponnesian War Macedon was a secondary power that alternated in support between Sparta and Athens.[9]

A unified Macedonian state was eventually established by King Amyntas III (c. 393–370 BC), though it still retained strong contrasts between the cattle-rich coastal plain and the fierce isolated tribal hinterland, allied to the king by marriage ties. They controlled the passes through which barbarian invasions came from Illyria to the north and northwest. It became increasingly Atticised during this period, though prominent Athenians appear to have regarded the Macedonians as uncouth.[10] Before the establishment of the League of Corinth, even though the Macedonians apparently spoke a dialect of the Greek language and claimed proudly that they were Greeks, they were not considered to fully share the classical Greek culture by many of the inhabitants of the southern city states, because they did not share the polis based style of government of the southerners.[9] Herodotus, being one of the foremost biographer in antiquity who lived in Greece at the time when the Macedonian king Alexander I was in power, mentioned: "I happen to know, and I will demonstrate in a subsequent chapter of this history, that these descendants of Perdiccas are, as they themselves claim, of Greek nationality. This was, moreover, recognized by the managers of the Olympic games, on the occasion when Alexander wished to compete and his Greek competitors tried to exclude him on the ground that foreigners were not allowed to take part. Alexander, however, proved his Argive descent, and so was accepted as a Greek and allowed to enter for the foot-race. He came in equal first".[11]

Over the 4th century Macedon became more politically involved with the south-central city-states of Ancient Greece, but it also retained more archaic features like the palace-culture, first at Aegae (modern Vergina) then at Pella, resembling Mycenaean culture more than classic Hellenic city-states, and other archaic customs, like Philip's multiple wives in addition to his Epirote queen Olympias, mother of Alexander.

Another archaic remnant was the very persistence of a hereditary monarchy which wielded formidable – sometimes absolute – power, although this was at times checked by the landed aristocracy, and often disturbed by power struggles within the royal family itself. This contrasted sharply with the Greek cultures further south, where the ubiquitous city-states mostly possessed aristocratic or democratic institutions; the de facto monarchy of tyrants, in which heredity was usually more of an ambition rather than the accepted rule; and the limited, predominantly military and sacerdotal, power of the twin hereditary Spartan kings. The same might have held true of feudal institutions like serfdom, which may have persisted in Macedon well into historical times. Such institutions were abolished by city-states well before Macedon's rise (most notably by the Athenian legislator Solon's famous σεισάχθεια seisachtheia laws).



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Map_Macedonia_336_BC-en.svg
Kingdom of Macedon after Philip's II death.

Rise of Macedon

Amyntas had three sons; the first two, Alexander II and Perdiccas III reigned only briefly. Perdiccas III's infant heir was deposed by Amyntas' third son, Philip II of Macedon, who made himself king and ushered in a period of Macedonian dominance of Greece. Under Philip II, (359–336 BC), Macedon expanded into the territory of the Paeonians, Thracians, and Illyrians. Among other conquests, he annexed the regions of Pelagonia and Southern Paeonia.[12]


Alexander's empire at the time of its maximum expansion

Empire

Philip's son, Alexander the Great (356–323 BC), managed to briefly extend Macedonian power not only over the central Greek city-states, but also to the Persian empire, including Egypt and lands as far east as the fringes of India.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Map_Macedonia_200_BC-fr.svg
Kingdom of Macedon under Philip V.

Under Philip V of Macedon (221–179 BC) and his son Perseus of Macedon (179–168 BC), the kingdom clashed with the rising power of the Roman Republic. During the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, Macedon fought a series of wars with Rome. Two major losses that led to their inevitable defeat were in 197 BC when Rome defeated Philip V, and 168 BC when Rome defeated Perseus. The overall losses resulted in the defeat of Macedon, the deposition of the Antigonid dynasty and the dismantling of the Macedonian kingdom. Andriscus' brief success at reestablishing the monarchy in 149 BC was quickly followed by his defeat the following year and the establishment of direct Roman rule and the organization of Macedon as the Roman province of Macedonia.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macedon



« Последно менување: Јули 17, 2012, 08:51:49 veritas »
Сочувана

veritas

  • Moderator
  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Отсутен Отсутен
  • Пораки: 2724
    • Погледај го Профилот
Одг: Европа и САД за историята на Македония
« Одговори #27 на: Јуни 10, 2010, 02:27:51 »

Macedonia (ancient kingdom)

Macedonia or Macedon (from Greek: Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom, centered in the northeastern part of the Greek peninsula,[1] bordered by Epirus to the west, Paeonia to the north, the region of Thrace to the east and Thessaly to the south. The rise of Macedon, from a small kingdom at the periphery of Classical Greek affairs, to one which came to dominate the entire Hellenic world, occurred under the reign of Philip II. For a brief period, after the conquests of Alexander the Great, it became the most powerful state in the world, controlling a territory that included the former Persian empire, stretching as far as the Indus River; at that time it inaugurated the Hellenistic period of Ancient Greek civilization.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macedon

Сочувана

veritas

  • Moderator
  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Отсутен Отсутен
  • Пораки: 2724
    • Погледај го Профилот
Одг: Европа и САД за историята на Македония
« Одговори #28 на: Јуни 10, 2010, 02:35:04 »

Argead dynasty



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:KAranus.png
The route of the Argeads from Argos, Peloponnese, to Macedonia

Argead dynasty (Greek: Ἀργεάδαι) was the ancient Greek ruling house of Macedon from about 700 to 310 BC. Their tradition, as described in ancient Greek historiography, traced their origins to Argos, in southern Greece (hence the name Argeads).[1][2] Initially the rulers of the homonymous tribe [3], by the time of Philip II they had expanded their reign further, to include under the rule of Macedon all Upper Macedonian states. The family's most celebrated members were Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great, under whose leadership, the kingdom of Macedon gradually gained predominance throughout Greece, defeated the Achaemenid Empire and expanded as far as Egypt and India.

Origin

The Argeads claimed descent from the Temenids of Argos, in the Peloponnese, whose legendary ancestor was Temenus, the great-great-grandson of Heracles. In the excavations of the royal Palace at Aegae Manolis Andronikos discovered in the "tholos" room (according to some scholars "tholos" was the throne room) an inscription relating to that belief.[4] This is testified by Herodotus, in The Histories, where he mentions that three brothers of the lineage of Temenus, Gauanes, Aeropus and Perdiccas, fled from Argos to the Illyrians and then to Upper Macedonia, to a town called Lebaea, where they served the king. The latter asked them to leave his territory, believing in an omen that something great would happen to Perdiccas. The boys went to another part of Macedonia, near the garden of Midas, above which mount Bermio stands. There they made their abode and gradually formed their own kingdom.[5] Herodotus also relates the incident of the participation of Alexander I of Macedon in the Olympic Games in 504 or 500 BC where the participation of the Macedonian king was contested by participants on the grounds that he was not Greek. The Hellanodikai, however, after examining his Argead claim confirmed his Greekness and allowed him to participate. [6]

According to Thucydides, in the History of the Peloponnesian War, the Argeads were originally Temenids from Argos, who descended from the highlands to Lower Macedonia, expelled the Pierians from Pieria and acquired in Paionia a narrow strip along the river Axios extending to Pella and the sea. They also added Mygdonia in their territory by the expulsion of the Edoni, Eordea and Almopia expelling the Eordians and Almopians respectively.[7]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argead_Dynasty



« Последно менување: Јули 17, 2012, 08:55:57 veritas »
Сочувана

veritas

  • Moderator
  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Отсутен Отсутен
  • Пораки: 2724
    • Погледај го Профилот
Одг: Европа и САД за историята на Македония
« Одговори #29 на: Јуни 10, 2010, 02:50:21 »

Argos



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Greece_location_map.svg
Location within the prefecture
Name

The region of Argos is known as the Argolis, Argolid, or Argeia. The inhabitants of Argos were known as Ἀργεῖοι or Argīvī in Latin, rendered Argives in English.

The name might be of pre-Greek ("Pelasgian") derivation; the name of its acropolis, Larissa, certainly is. Aitiology derives it from a mythological founder, Argos son of Zeus and Niobe (see also Danaus). If the name is Indo-European, it may be related to the adjective argós (αργóς, "shimmering" or "quick"), from a root arg- (PIE *arǵ-, hence also argyros, silver), with a meaning "shining brightly" or similar.

A Neolithic settlement was located near the central sanctuary of Argois, removed 45 stadia (8 km; 5 miles) from Argos, closer to Mycenae. The temple was dedicated to "Argivian Hera". The main festival of that temple was the Hekatombaia, one of the major festivals of Argos itself. Walter Burkert (Homo necans, p. 185) connected the festival to the myth of the slaying of Argus Panoptes by Hermes ("shimmering" or "quick"), and only secondarily associated with mythological Argus (or the toponym).

Argos was a major stronghold of Mycenaean times, and along with the neighbouring acropolis of Mycenae and Tiryns became a very early settlement because of its commanding positions in the midst of the fertile plain of Argolis.

During Homeric times it belonged to a follower of Agamemnon and gave its name to the surrounding district; the Argolid which the Romans knew as Argeia. The importance of Argos was eclipsed by nearby Sparta after the 6th century BC.[dubious – discuss]

Because of its refusal to fight or send supplies in the Graeco-Persian Wars, Argos was shunned by most other city-states.[citation needed] Argos remained neutral or the ineffective ally of Athens during the 5th century BC struggles between Sparta and Athens.

The Mythological kings of Argos are (in order): Inachus, Phoroneus, Argus, Triopas, Agenor, Iasus, Crotopus, Pelasgus (aka Gelanor), Danaus, Lynceus, Abas, Proetus, Acrisius, Perseus, Megapénthês, Argeus, and Anaxagoras. An alternative version (supplied by Tatiānus[2]) of the original 17 consecutive kings of Argōs includes Apis, Argios, Kriasos, and Phorbas between Argus and Triopas, explaining the apparent unrelation of Triopas to Argus.

After the original 17 kings of Argos, there were three kings ruling Argos at the same time (see Anaxagoras), one descended from Bias, one from Melampus, and one from Anaxagoras. Melampus was succeeded by his son Mantius, then Oicles, and Amphiaraus, and his house of Melampus lasted down to the brothers Alcmaeon and Amphilochus.

Anaxagoras was succeeded by his son Alector, and then Iphis. Iphis left his kingdom to his nephew Sthenelus, the son of his brother Capaneus.

Bias was succeeded by his son Talaus, and then by his son Adrastus who, with Amphiaraus, commanded the disastrous Seven Against Thebes. Adrastus bequethed the kingdom to his son, Aegialeus, who was subsequently killed in the war of the Epigoni. Diomedes, grandson of Adrastus through his son-in-law Tydeus and daughter Deipyle, replaced Aegialeus and was King of Argos during the Trojan war. This house lasted longer than those of Anaxagoras and Melampus, and eventually the kingdom was reunited under its last member, Cyanippus, son of Aegialeus, soon after the exile of Diomedes.

Argos played a role in the Peloponnesian war and beyond.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argos

« Последно менување: Јули 17, 2012, 08:58:08 veritas »
Сочувана